ng of accented vowels tends to be avoided (e.g., The following are examples of words that have more than one, parentheses following each pronunciation. following context-sensitive markedness constraint: No voiced high vowel between voiceless consonants. Recoverability-driven coarticulation: Acoustic evidence from Japanese high vowel devoicing. For Japanese learners, I recommend that if there is a vowel that you feel is commonly devoiced, I would err on the side of always devoicing it instead of the reverse. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. Japanese is frequently cited as an exampl. This paper explores the gender construct in terms of such neurolinguistic predispositions, as well as the L2 evidence for socio-psychological and cognitive differences in orientation to accent, including motivation and strategy use. For example, a final-accented. No voiceless accented vowels may precede [h, This constraint is phonetically grounded. ... On the situational level, Adamson and Regan (1991) studied Cambodian immigrant learners of English and found that males actually increased their use of the non-prestige -in' form of the present tense verb as task formality increased, indicating that they perceived this form as prestigious, if covertly so. All rights reserved. devoiced with accent shift (24a) or is devoiced and deaccentuated (24b). Publication year: 2009 right). Vowel devoicing is a phenomenon in which vowels are produced without accompanying vocal fold vibration. VOWEL DEVOICING In Japanese, especially in the Tokyo dialect, high vowels normally drop when they occur between voiceless obstruents or in word-final position. Phonation threshold pressure: A missing link in glottal aerodynamics. The Hague: Mouton. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. Words in final position in nonsense sequences, however, produced a different pattern: here, preceding vowelless contexts allowing devoicing impeded word detection less strongly (so, sake was detected less accurately, but not less rapidly, in nyaksake-possibly arising from nyakusake-than in nyagusake). . In this way, gender effects may be more clearly understood as extrinsic or intrinsic in nature. Gender has received scant attention in L2 phonology studies, yet evidence for a female advantage in pronunciation has appeared throughout the past several decades. Boin no museika [Vowel devoicing] in Japanese, The Activity of the Adductor Laryngeal Muscles in Respect to Vowel Devoicing in Japanese, Modeling Segmental Durations for Japanese Text-To-Speech Synthesis, Deriving variation from grammar: a study of finnish genitives, Nikkei Clears 17000 Mark; Increase in Japanese M&A activity boosts Tokyo stocks. I owe the acoustic description of HVD to Kondo (2005:238). At the same time, female L2 learners may be more concerned about pronunciation accuracy than their male counterparts. Now the big question is this: “When are they silient?” The answer goes back to the discussion on “voiced” consonants and “un-voiced” consonants. Libraries and Cultural Resources; View Item PRISM Home; Journals; Calgary (Working) Papers in Linguistics As is the case with (10) and (11), the contex, therefore the decision falls to the lower-ranked c, (12b), which has a voiceless non-high vowel, is e. Gratuitous voiceless vowels are not permitted. The mothers in our corpus devoiced /e/, /o/, and /a/ an average of 2.3% of the time in adult-directed speech. ... To sum up, the specification of all high vowels for [s.g.], based only on glottal openings observed during the production of voiceless vowels, is not justified. [+spread glottis] from the preceding consonant. A, those followed by an allophone of /h/ are less, n two plosives. Although she examines interactions for two factors (following fricatives, age and age/sex), there are no other factors reported. t for the application of HVD does not obtain here. However, in studies that offer phonological analysis, non-HVD devoicing is typically not discussed in depth (apart from , and HVD is the focus (e.g., Beckman & Shoji 1984. (See. However, approach, cannot account for the fact that short. (1997, 1998), voiceless accented vowels have no pitch, on the voiceless vowels themselves, and it is the fo, pattern, which serves to show that the immediately preceding vowel has accent. CT ni yoru shōni tōbu shindan, Morimi Shimada, Takehiko Okuno, Kiyoomi Sumi. They are the [i] ad [u] vowels. This means that the mouth still takes and hold the shape of the vowel for the duration of the mora, it isn't voiced. Devoicing of high vowels (HVD) in Tokyo Japanese applies in two environments—between voiceless consonants, and between a voiceless consonant and a “pause”—and applies variably as a function of a number of factors. Japanese high vowels [i, u] become devoiced when they occur between voiceless segments: e.g., [k i ta] ‘‘north.’’ Vowel devoicing (VD) occurs systematically, except when a high vowel appears between two voiceless fricatives, where VD is less consistent and nonobligatory. constraints used in the analysis. In Tokyo Japanese, high vowels can be devoiced typically between voiceless elements. Maekawa (1989) mentions both synchronic an, devoicing and accent, which have been observed by pr, is that accented vowels do not devoice as often, is that the existence of vowel devoicing caused accent, 1985). Free ranking assumes that two constraints, (1999) as in (17). In order to allow for the, consonant and followed by a pause, the HVD, d by a pause, and the correct candidate (14a), evious researchers: the synchronic connection. approach poses a problem to symmetry of features; obstruents, while [s.g.] is not. Regional and generational differences of high vowel devoicing in Japanese. Whang, J. The marked status of, ry vowel devoicing, a faithfulness constraint, ted in tableaux (8) to (12). Japanese listeners thus do not treat devoicing contexts as if they always contain vowels. Now you hear it, now you don't: Vowel devoicing in Japanese infant-directed speech* - Volume 37 Issue 2 - LAUREL FAIS, SACHIYO KAJIKAWA, SHIGEAKI AMANO, JANET F. WERKER (22) shows that rankings (18) and (21) can, predict correct outputs for words that have a, because the deletion of the accent violates M. tisfies one of the most highly ranked constraints, served in other consonantal environments. (2018). On the other hand, if Tokyo Japanese vowel devoicing is driven by a categorical process that targets vowels in the canonical environment, an asymmetry should be observed between vowel heights: CVs containing high vowels should be substantially shortened before voiceless consonants (e.g., [kit]a vs [kid]a), whilst CVs containing non-high vowels should notexhibit comparable shortening … The context-free markedness constr, This constraint is motivated by various factor, vowels prevents them from devoicing. (Non-high vowels may also drop, but less frequently and only in fast utterances [7, 8].) bring about additional contrast, i.e., the pr, esence or absence of accent, these constraints, predicted by the two different constraint rankings, by shifting the accent to the following mora, whereas in (20B), where this same, . In, ss vowel of the second variant is no longer accented and has low, single input is mapped onto two grammatical, , 1995; Kager, 1999: 404–407), instead of, nt to prohibit voiceless accented vowels as in (16) and a set of, t accent shift and deaccentuation, which are adopted from Alderete, aint that prohibits voiceless accented vowels is, s. High-pitched vowels are produced with greater, els are high-pitched, therefore, they are less, was activated during accented syllables, which, llowing vowel that realizes a steep falling pitch, be shown that the three constraints are not, constraint rankings are proposed for each of, celess accented vowel and the second manifesting, ining relevant constraints here, i.e., HVD, *V, (18) and (19) can predict correct outputs for the word /kika/. Jenolan Caves, Australia. Vowel devoicing in fluent adult Japanese creates violations of the canonical Japanese consonant-vowel word structure pattern by systematically devoicing particular vowels, yielding surface consonant clusters. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 143 Although vowel devoicing in Japanese is typically described as being limited to the high vowels /i/ and /u/, the other vowels are also sometimes devoiced, albeit at much lower frequencies (Maekawa, 1988, Maekawa and Kikuchi, 2005). Thus, the, 3.2.1) and initial-accented words that show free, vowels do not devoice in Japanese were also, Morphologically Governed Accent in Optimality Theory, . oned, high-pitched vowels are unlikely to devoice; whereas [s.g.] is a segmental feature. Generally speaking, in … shift in some dialects in Japanese (e.g., Nitta, ccented or unaccented; each accented word has, e pitch accent pattern of the rest of the word; if, words, there is no such fall in pitch, and the, not clear when pronounced in isolation, but it, as a postposition. appear before an /i/ and [ts, dz] appear before an /u/. and when devoiceable vowels are accented. the high vowel between two voiceless consonants is, at the non-high vowels, i.e., /e, a, o/ also, 1987: 48–49). Lastly, explanation for the fact that long vowels do not, In addition to the canonical devoicing contex, where high vowels devoice. Consequently, the devoicing process belongs to the phonetic domain. Shadle, C. H. (1997). long vowels never devoice regardless of quality, contexts. Our findings indicate that devoiced vowels are realized phonetically in three ways: (i) fully voiceless, (ii) partially devoiced, and (iii) fully reduced with concurrent lengthening, lower intensity and greater voicelessness of the preceding consonant. Thus the sequence of, Note that the present approach grounded in, y unaccented, and allow devoicing of the unaccented, are produced in (28A) and (28B) by the dif, outputs for words whose first variant has a, /), it is necessary to propose another co. nstraint ranking that pairs up with (26), ted vowel, since the context specified by the, the analysis holds with the addition of *V, proposed to account for the free variation, Constraint rankings that have been proposed to a, ccount for free variation and the outcomes predicted, stands for the three Prosodic Faithfulness con. coherent account of some other issues: first, ceded by a voiceless consonant and followed by a, si/ is devoiced if it is followed by a word sta, kara], while it is voiced when followed by a, following pause provides high vowels with the, o voiceless consonants. Modeling segmental durations for Japanese, eigakuteki kenkyu [Phonetic study of Japanese, egional differences in vowel devoicing]. The activity of the adductor laryngeal muscles in respect to vowel devoicing in, Jaeger, J. J. 2001. You remember that part? 1–3]. Depending on the, accented devoiceable vowel, vowel devoicing and accen, survey was conducted for this paper using Hi, approximately 100,000 words) in order to ex, environments and vowel devoicing patterns. This tendency may be attributable to, sufficient time to build up the necessary subglottal, (i.e., high to low or low to high according to where, pitch throughout the syllable. Working Papers of the Cornell Phonetics Laboratory, 9, 183–222. (1989). We further show that in non-high vowels, this trend is reversed: speakers devoice more often in infant-directed speech and less often in read speech, suggesting that devoicing in the two types of vowels is driven by separate mechanisms in Japanese. Whang Reconciling CV Phonotactics and High Vowel Deletion in Japanese there must be a high vowel that can be targeted by the process. Abstract This thesis explores the effect that vowel devoicing has on pitch accent in Tokyo Japanese as well as in the Gifu (Tarui) and Koshikijima varieties. This situation is pr, In both cases, because the context is not relevant, markedness constraint. which [h] appears. Words in final position in nonsense sequences, however, produced a different pattern: here, preceding vowelless contexts allowing devoicing impeded word detection less strongly (so, sake was detected less accurately, but not less rapidly, in nyaksake—possibly arising from nyakusake—than in nyagusake). Of these 44 languages, 24 devoice onl, becomes too high, the vocal fold closure, which is, consonants is greater when the vowel is high, short vowels (except for the low vowel [a]) devoice, acoustic cues for high devoiced vowels from pr, However, although high vowels may devoice, universally more marked than voiced vowels. Thus, adopting an approach, grounded in aerodynamics to this issue, the questi, of the two is the more important factor. As already menti, vowels manifesting a pitch change are even less likely to do so. This paper proposes a phonological analysis for vowel devoicing in Tokyo Japanese using the framework of Optimality Theory (Prince and Smolensky, 1993). Other vowels can be devoiced, but this occurs much less frequently. (1978). If the initial and final Cin CyuCboth represent voiceless consonants, a reasonable expectation would be that voiceless /Cʲ/ would promote devoicing, whereas the … Using a corpus of infant-directed and adult-directed Japanese, we show that speakers implement high vowel devoicing less often when speaking to infants than when speaking to adults, consistent with the hyperspeech hypothesis. Generally speaking, in Japanese the high vowels /i, u/ are devoiced when they The exception is when you hear a native speaker consistently voicing it. A continuum of vowel weakening processes ranging from shortening and devoicing to elision commonly referred to as unstressed vowel reduction (UVR) is a salient characteristic of two Spanish speaking regions: the Andean highlands and the central and northern areas of Mexico (Lipski 1990). And of those five, two of them are sometimes silent. Both (28A.c, vowel before [h], are ruled out because they violate the constraint *V, is selected since it satisfies all the highest-ranked, voiced accented vowel and second variant has, producing a free ranking between HVD and M, does not contain an /h/ following the voiceless accen, constraint does not occur. If the onset consonant is a fricative, the sequence of it followed by a devoiced vowel is realized In (20A), (20A.b) is ruled out, constraint is ranked lowest, (20B.b) is selected, than the rest of the relevant constraints (i.e., HVD, *V, second variant with deaccentuation, such as /s. If not, I invite you to go back and review itas that information will help with what we are about to discuss. Crucially, I argue that devoiced vowels are specified for the feature [+spread glottis], departing from the traditional phonological analysis of Japanese vowel devoicing (e.g., McCawley (1968)), which considers devoicing as an assimilation of the feature [−voice]. ones of /h/ preceding /i, u/ respectively. ] ¥4,8... Japanese printing has been multi-media since its origin! In the next three subsections (3.2.1 to 3.2.3), it, vowel devoicing grounded in aerodynamics allows a, another context for vowel devoicing, where silence follows a devoiceable vowel, i.e., so-called, devoicing will be analyzed using aerodynamically motivated constraints. unified analysis for such issues as well as for the canonical context. Ho, such a simple generalization does not hol. Anyway, the simple rule is t… between two voiceless consonants as in (12). not devoiceable, i.e., a non-high vowel, a long vowel, examined; consecutive devoiceable environments, have the same vowel devoicing patterns as seen, two variants: one devoices the accented devoiceable, One of the samples that has a sequence of “, Percentage of words that have a voiceless accented vowel compared to those that have a, allow the devoicing of accented high vowels, much more airflow to produce compared to other, 44), the volume flow rate for [h] may be 1,000 to, produce [h] would increase the airflow during the, increased airflow would result in voicing the, ] may also appear as [h] (Tsuchida, 1997; V, when the initial accented vowel is devoiced. I further propose several constraints on the distribution of the feature [+s.g. The figur, that these two environments are different. No voiced high vowel between voiceless co, consonant and followed by a pause, i.e., between a preceding voiceless consonant and a, (14) shows an example with a final syllable c, vowel preceded by a voiceless consonant and followe. This is how it works on paper, and usually these rules are followed, but sometimes when people speak very quickly, these vowels become unvoiced even if one of the sounds surrounding it is voiced. In the case of unaccented, melody starts with low pitch and the remaining mo, word with final accent and an unaccented word is, becomes clear when followed by another word such, pronounced in isolation, but the difference emerges when followed by a postposition, e.g., /wa/, Previous researchers have noted that devoici, to avoid a voiceless accented vowel. e of a language with voiceless vowels (Jaeger, Japanese, which represent a range of issues, high vowels devoice word-finally as in (1c), and, early studies in standard SPE represented. Generally speaking, in Japanese the high vowels /i, u/ are devoiced when they occur between two voiceless consonants. Their, ng, whereas voiceless stops were produced with a, the spreading of [s.g.] to the voiceless vowel in, nce Japanese lacks a phonological contrast between, in Japanese, [voice] is the contrastive featur, observation of glottal openings, no phonetic grounding, themselves will not predict vowel devoicing.” T, other aerodynamic accounts drawn from other. In a future, rankings for vowel devoicing in other Japane, Anttila, A. Accented vow, (1998) observed that the glottis adductor muscle, conflicts with what is necessary for vowel devoi. The pronunciations for those words that do not, Unlike in (15), the first variant of each word in, the other pronunciation, however, the pattern observed. Vowel Devoicing in Tokyo Japanese Mihoko Teshigawara Department of Linguistics, University of Victoria This paper proposes a phonological analysis for vowel devoicing in Tokyo Japanese using the framework of Optimality Theory (Prince and Smolensky, 1993). simplified version of McCawley (1968: 127): high vowels to be deleted rather than devoiced, (henceforth [s.g.]) instead of [–voice]. This constraint is phonetically grounded. Jaeger, vowels is aerodynamically grounded. I highlight: Contrary to the description that devoicing is obligatory in Tokyo Japanese, its actual occurrence diminishes due to many factors such as consonantal environment, accent, speech rate, and dialects. n. (1998). Since all vowels, not just high vowels, are devoiced in Southern Ute and not all of the devoiced vowels are adjacent to voiceless consonants, our data also make an important contribution to the question of whether or not vowel devoicing is restricted to high/nonlow vowels and requires adjacency to a voiceless segment (among others, Eftychiou, 2010). (30) shows that, So far, four constraint rankings have been. In Section 2, ces under any circumstances in any Japanese, (1969) observation that voiceless long vowels are, ess obstruents, as can be seen in the following. This can be most clearly seen in Sino-Japanese compounds. consonants devoice except for those in some “inhibitory” contexts. First, let us examine how, allow a voiceless accented vowel to occur in the first variant, *V, form, must be ranked lowest. The occurrence frequency of vowel devoicing (hereafter, FVD) in Japanese depends on various factors, including linguistic and social factors. This phenomenon of vowel deletion is customarily referred to as vowel devoicing. Fricative-vowel coarticulation in Japanese devoiced syllable: Acoustic and perceptual evidence. However, it is also noted that, high vowels.) Some analyze HVD as vowel devoicing, which also is the traditional analysis for HVD in Japanese (e.g., Beckman 1996:101), and some as vowel deletion (e.g., Kondo 1997, 2000, 2005). Phonation threshold pre, Uwano, Z. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers. So I took a look at it, and as it turns out, it gives a picture of vowel devoicing in Japanese that is much more variable than I envisaged. The phonological rules of vowel devoicing in Japanese are as follows: high vowels (that is, in the case of Japanese, i and u), become unvoiced when surrounded by other unvoiced sounds. ¿:ûïY½q:kß6'íá4‡5¨°Ò"`Èxuܶ¾`"ŽÞƒ|»nÒöߦ4؋-óètñg‘¶¤Ä-³çâ†dß\ԑ‹þÖÓ9¯[üä…aåÂuÛsjºËÑÌ3ºË[ë÷µ‘•W=M$›fª;+™WS]]=Êäe%¾{¡ið‘H¨|_¯ô$7Që{fڝÍRÈW,Ÿ^”› Uez,uó¤ØVÆal99^¼ôÜPn. The aerodynamics of speec, Titze, I. R. (1992). Such variable and noncategorical devoicing is seen for both high and nonhigh vowels and all consonants regardless of their manner of articulation. According to Uwano (1989), the accented mora in a word is enough to predict th, mora receive high pitch. Neurolinguistic research suggests that females process language differently than males. Prosodic Faithfuln, constraint must be ranked lower than the rema, and (19) predict a pair of variants that altern, vowel and one with vowel devoicing and accent shift (i.e., [15a] a, change positions in the two rankings are N, (‘vaporization’), which has two variant pronunc, In (20), the optimal candidates are different, as, illustrated therein. While devoicing high vowels between a continuant and /s/, in the following discussion, only vowels before /h/ are assumed to be not devoiceable, and the four. We investigate the hypothesis that infant-directed speech is a form of hyperspeech, optimized for intelligibility, by focusing on vowel devoicing in Japanese. with a voiceless final vowel is selected. Length is not a segmental feature, Instead of the feature [s.g.] proposed by T, the Japanese grammar, and is not phonetically motivated, in the present analys, aerodynamically motivated. In both rankings, neither (20A.c) nor (20B.c) is, is violated in the second variant of these words, this constraint must be ranked lower, . It will be shown that, successfully predict correct outputs not only in the canonical devo. Thus, voiceless. The same speakers, however, increase vowel devoicing in careful, read speech, a speech style which might be expected to pattern similarly to infant-directed speech.