Groups should compare their results to their predictions and provide a reasonable explanation for what they observed. 1a) Melting sea ice does not lead to sea level rise. Glaciers are land ice. Melting land ice leads to sea level rise, whereas melting sea ice has minimal impact. The Effects of Sea-Ice and Land-Snow Concentrations on Planetary Albedo from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment. Bearing in mind the current adverse climatic conditions, environmental conservation measures should be put to place. Sea ice differs between the Arctic and Antarctic, primarily because of their different geography. Research exercise: Volume and density of water in solid vs liquid forms at standard air pressure. The land ice however was not included in the original measurement of the water which contained the sea ice. Students should be able to connect the model to the global events of ice melting and associated sea-level rise. Ask them to specify if the ice is on land or at sea. Sea level rise is a natural consequence of the warming of our planet. Without disturbing the ice cubes, pour water into the land-ice container until the water level is about equal to the water level in the sea-ice container. Compare the water level with the marked line in the clay. This represents sea ice. Arctic sea ice melts in summer and reforms in winter, but precise satellite imagery taken regularly since 1979 documented how the cycle has been shrinking significantly. Tell students they’re going to conduct an experiment to learn how melting ice contributes to sea-level rise. Holly Rembisz - 10/24/2020 Part 1: Melting Sea Ice and Sea Level Rise Part A – Sea Ice and Land Ice Experiment Experiment based on “Climate Change Inquiry Labs: Melting Seas Ice and Sea Level Rise” by the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement Mission. Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and measuring tapes. The Arctic is a semi-enclosed ocean, almost completely surrounded by land. Available: PixaBay. How about the melting of icebergs? What do you think will happen to the water when sea ice melts into it, versus when land ice melts into it? Compare sea level rise of melted sea ice vs land ice. Both thermal expansion and ice melt are the results of the rise in global average temperatures on land and sea known as climate change. With land ice, the ice wasn't displacing any water. This represents land ice. Pupils could return at intervals to measure the amount of sea level rise as the ice … The experiment allows them to test whether land ice and/or sea ice contribute to sea level rise as they melt. You can mark the water level with a marker on the outside of the tub, but if the containers are reused, they will have the marks from the previous group. The freshwater ice (on the left) is solid all the way through and has no channels. As a result, sea level does not rise when sea ice melts. Ice on land such as Antarctica and Greenland would affect sea level just as the friction of the ice leaning on the jar showed a wrong conclusion. Groups should build the land-ice and sea-ice containers according to the directions. Tell students they’re going to conduct an experiment to learn how melting ice contributes to sea-level rise.  Roughly 80% of the sunlight that hits the ice reflects into space. This … "Ice Shelf and Ice Sheet Simulation", National Science Foundation - PBS LearningMedia. This activity takes time, as a given quantity of ice has to melt. (The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, along with smaller mountain glaciers, are considered land ice. BTW…whether an ice free Arctic ocean happens in 2020 or 2030 or 2040, makes little difference. Provide each group with the required materials and directions to conduct the experiment. Land ice can be labelled as ice sheets whereas sea ice can be labelled as ice shelves. This article is aimed to distinguish between these two types of ice. Available: ”Quick Facts | Quick Facts on Arctic Sea Ice | National Snow and Ice Data Center", National Snow & Ice Data Center, 2016. Groups should take measurements and record data at regular intervals. Antarctic Sea Ice. The high CO2 levels of the Cretaceous had no ice at the poles, for instance. Both types of ice range over vast areas of the polar regions. In the other tub, place the same number of ice cubes on the bottom of the tub, next to the clay. Which can become sea ice when chunks of ice that break off and fall into the ocean (and become icebergs). The accuracy of their prediction is not as important as the fact that they made one and can communicate their reasoning. The exchange of salt between sea ice and the ocean alters the density of ocean waters, thus influencing ocean circulation. Finally, glac… To understand why this is, imagine a jug of ice and water. Obtain information to identify where water is found on Earth and that it can be solid or liquid, Obtain and combine information to describe climates in different regions of the world, Develop a model using an example to describe ways the geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and/or atmosphere interact, Develop a model to describe the cycling of water through Earth's systems driven by energy from the sun and the force of gravity. Available: http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/ipy07.sci.ess.watcyc.icesimulate/ice-shelf-and-ice-sheet-simulation/#support-materials, https://pixabay.com/static/uploads/photo/2016/03/14/15/46/arctic-ocean-1255679_960_720.jpg, http://nsidc.org/cryosphere/seaice/index.html, http://nsidc.org/cryosphere/seaice/environment/global_climate.html, http://nsidc.org/cryosphere/quickfacts/seaice.html, http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/PolarIce/polar_ice.php, https://pixabay.com/static/uploads/photo/2012/12/22/23/37/argentina-71909_960_720.jpg, https://energyeducation.ca/wiki/index.php?title=Land_vs_sea_ice&oldid=4370. Available: PixaBay. Allow the ice in both tubs to melt completely. When the land ice melts, additional water is added into the ocean, causing the sea level to rise.  They vary greatly in quantity due to seasonal changes in temperature. Measure to determine how much longer one object is than another, expressing the length difference in terms of a standard length unit. [Online]. Sea ice occurs in both the Arctic and Antarctic. The most basic difference is that sea ice forms from salty ocean water, whereas land ice (ice sheets and glaciers) form from fresh water or snow. How does this compare to your prediction? Available: ”Polar Ice Fact Sheet : Feature Articles", NASA, 2016. 1b) Melting ice on land does cause sea level rise. Global warming - Global warming - Ice melt and sea level rise: A warming climate holds important implications for other aspects of the global environment. Although sea ice moves around the Arctic basin, it tends to stay in the cold Arctic waters. The Antarctic Ice Sheet is the largest store of frozen freshwater; it would raise sea levels by 58.3 m (its “sea level equivalent”, or SLE) on full melting. Antarctic sea ice extent is currently below the long-term average of all decades prior since 1979. Ice on Earth – Download PDF (2.8 MB) January 2018 This month, EO Kids is covering a “cool” topic in Earth science. Avoid pressing your fingers into the clay and creating depressions that will block the flow of water.  Greenland and Antarctica combined, contain about 75% of the world's fresh water, which is enough to raise sea level by over 75 meters, if all the ice were restored to the oceans..  Land ice differs from sea ice in the way that it is formed. As the sea ice melts in the summer, and instead of reflecting, the ocean absorbs 90% of the sunlight. In “Sea Ice” beaker, add crushed ice cubes (3-4 ice cubes equiv.) Using the ruler, measure the water level (in millimeters) in each tub and record the data on the student data sheet. ‘’Glacial Ice Argentina’’ [Online]. They conduct two experiments, one looking at sea ice and the other looking at land ice and observe how the melting of this ice affects the sea level. Snow, ice sheets, glaciers, sea ice and permafrost, known as the cryosphere, act as Earth’s thermostat and freezer, regulating temperatures by reflecting heat from the Sun and storing almost two-thirds of our fresh water. Ice sheets and glaciers cover approximately 15 million km2, roughly equivalent to 10% of the Earth's land surface area. https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/edu/teach/activity/whats-causing-sea-level-rise-land-ice-vs-sea-ice/. Greenland and Antarctica contain giant ice sheets that are also considered glaciers. Use the measurements recorded on the data sheet to create a line graph representing the water level in each tub.  While still large, land ice only covers two thirds as much surface area as sea ice covers. For example, if the entire West Antarctic ice sheet melted, the sea level would increase by 5 meters. Be sure the clay surface will allow the melted land ice to flow into the body of water. Show the measurements by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in whole-number units. Lake ice is also considered land ice. Measure the level of water as before. As a result, the sea ice that forms in the Arctic is not as mobile as sea ice in the Antarctic. (May 8, 2016).  This is an example of a positive climate feedback, which is part of why climate change effects are hard to predict. This turns the inside of the ice the same color as the dye. Available: ”All About Sea Ice | All About Sea Ice | National Snow and Ice Data Center", National Snow & Ice Data Center, 2016. The GRACE mission concluded science operations in June 2017. Antarctic sea ice expands during the winter, only to melt back largely to the continent’s edge in summer. This represents land ice. Climate Change Lessons and Activities from JPL Education, Infographic: Earth's Carbon Cycle Is Off Balance. If students meet for only a class period, consider accelerating the ice melt by placing the experiment near a warm lamp or a source of mild warmth. Land ice and sea ice comprise the majority of the polar regions on Earth. This absorption heats up the ocean causing further more melting of ice. Roughly 15% of the world's oceansare covered by sea ice during a portion of the year. [Online]. Ask them to specify if the ice is on land or at sea. The ice in the Arctic is frozen seawater and therefore considered sea ice.). Ask students to explain their thinking. In the second part of the experiment, the water level (sea level) went up. The seasonal cycle of Arctic sea ice is much smaller. Generate measurement data by measuring lengths using rulers marked with halves and fourths of an inch. Be aware that the ice in the water will melt faster than the ice on the “land.”. On the other hand, land ice refers to any form of ice formed on land and lasts for more than a year. This activity allows students to explore sea level rise. Background for Teachers. Icebergs and frozen seawater also melt in warm temperatures but do not cause sea level to rise. In one container, place as many ice cubes as possible on the flat clay or rock surface. Sea ice is white which means it has a highly reflective surface, thus it has a high albedo. Sea level is rising, in part, because melting glaciers on land are adding more water to Earth’s oceans. Leave the tray as the land ice melts. Sea ice forms in the winter months and melts in the summer months, however in certain regions it remains year round. Two identical, clear, plastic food-storage containers, approx. Another contributor to sea-level rise is the increase in volume that occurs when water is heated, called thermal expansion. In Part 2 of our Sea Level Rise experiment, Ayla walks you through how to determine whether land ice (like glaciers) or sea ice (like icebergs) contributes more to rising water levels. Global sea ice on average covers nearly 25 million km2, the same size as the North American continent.. The Antarctic Ice Sheetcovers 8.3% of the Earth’s land surface. In what way is this related to global sea-level rise? Formulate your hypothesis, then click "play" to find out! , The intensity of sea level rise depends on the quantity of melt occurring. As ice melts and becomes water, the volume of water gets displaced relative to the volume of water it would contribute as melting occurs. This represents sea ice. NASA Climate Change social media – Follow the latest news and updates from NASA Climate Change on. Sea ice differs between the Arctic and Antarctic, primarily because of their different geography. In the first part of the experiment, the water level (sea level) did not go up. The Arctic is a semi-enclosed ocean, almost completely surrounded by land. What is certain is the trend — we are losing Arctic sea ice and permafrost. A figure showing current Arctic sea ice extent can be found here. The presence of ridge ice and … Floes are more prone to converge, or bump into each other, and pile up into thick ridges.  These variations in ocean temperature and salinity can disrupt and threaten marine species that are dependent on the ocean due to the ocean being delicate to change. The Earth works on larger time scales than we use. The volume of water they displace as ice is the same as the volume of water they add to the ocean when they melt. As a result, the sea ice that forms in the Arctic is not as mobile as sea ice in the Antarctic. Melting land ice such as that seen on Greenland and Antarctica will affect global sea level because this ice is land based and therefore is not displacing sea water. This activity can be done in groups or as a whole-class demonstration. Pour water into the sea-ice container until the ice floats. Although sea ice moves around the Arctic basin, it tends to stay in the cold Arctic waters. Floes are more prone to converge, or bump into each other, and pile up into thick ridges… Fresh water becomes less dense as it approaches the freezing point. Roughly 15% of the world's oceans are covered by sea ice during a portion of the year.. It is formed slowly, a process that involves the saline water sinking from the surface which then cools and solidifies. As the ice warms and melts, the total volume of water in the jug does not change, so the water level stays the same. Press equal amounts of clay into one side of each plastic tub, making a smooth, flat surface representing land rising out of the ocean. Students should make a prediction and provide reasoning for their prediction. Another way to mark the water level is to mark a line in the clay using a pencil or other object. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California institute of Technology, National Aeronautics and Space Administration. To demonstrate this, pupils need to place a quantity of ice onto their island above sea level. Ask students where there is a lot of ice on Earth. Sea ice is white which means it has a highly reflective surface, thus it has a high albedo. In one tub, place as many ice cubes as possible on the flat clay surface. In contrast, icebergs, glaciers, ice sheets, and ice shelves all originate on land. Land ice changes are slower but do affect sea levels, at least until the land ice becomes afloat. At regular intervals, measure the water level and record it on the data sheet. GRACE … Therefore, when it melted off of the “land” and dripped into the water, it added volume. 1c) Warmer Arctic seas increase sea level.  In contrast, sea ice forms quite slowly, compared to freshwater ice, because the saline water tends to sinks away from the cold surface before it cools enough to solidify. ‘’Arctic Ocean Sea Ice’’ [Online]. Once the barrier is gone, glacial ice melt entering the ocean would increase the sea level. Be sure no ice … [Online]. Put a piece of ice in the jar, fill it completely to the top with water as in the you tube video and watch the outcome. The Greenland Ice Sheet has a sea level equivalent ice volume of 7.36 m, and covers 1.2% of the global land surface. It is formed when freshwater, which has low density, stays on the earth’s surface and forms a layer of ice. In the final part of the experiment, the water spilt out over the edge of the metal dish. In the Southern … This represents land ice. Be sure no ice is resting on the bottom of the tub. Use the data from the student data sheet to create a line graph using spreadsheet software. Sea ice insulates the relatively warm ocean water from the cold polar atmosphere, except where cracks in the ice allow for the exchange of heat and moisture. Does the melting of Earth’s glaciers contribute to sea-level rise? They are found in the mountains of every continent except Australia. Like sea ice, land ice plays a significant role in maintaining Earth's energy balance by reflecting solar radiation back out into space. On the student data sheet, have students record their prediction about which type of ice will contribute more to sea-level rise.  This is due to Archimedes' principle which states that if a body is immersed in a fluid, that body is lifted up by a buoyant forces equal to the weight of the fluid that is displaced. Glaciers – large sheets of ice and snow – exist on land all year long. Extra credit: Factoring calculated insolation annual average at 67 degrees South lattitude, show calculations for melt rate of 4700 cubic meters of ice with 4000 square meters of surface exposure. Pour water into the sea-ice container until the ice floats. This is because they are already in the water. In the other tub, place the same number of ice cubes on the bottom of the tub, next to the clay. [Online]. In one tub, place as many ice cubes as possible on the flat clay surface. As the sea ice melts in the summer, and instead of reflecting, the ocean abs… In the Northern Hemisphere, it can currently exist as far south as Bohai Bay, China (approximately 38 degrees north latitude), which is actually about 700 kilometers (435 miles) closer to the Equator than it is to the North Pole. Available: ”All About Sea Ice | Environment : Climate | National Snow and Ice Data Center", National Snow & Ice Data Center, 2016. Frigid, low density fresh water stays at the surface of a lake or river, forming a layer of ice on the surface. Sea ice (on the right) forms brine channels which food coloring is able to penetrate. The Effects of Sea-Ice and Land-Snow Concentrations on Planetary Albedo from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment. The effect is too small to see in my experiment (less than 1 mm of water level change), and not directly applicable to melting sea ice in the ocean. Show the data by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in appropriate units— whole numbers, halves, or quarters. to the water around the 150 mL beaker. Generate measurement data by measuring lengths of several objects to the nearest whole unit, or by making repeated measurements of the same object. 6 inches by 6 inches, Clay (enough to fill about a quarter of each tub with 1-2 inches of clay). The melting of ice that sits on land (an ice sheet) or on the ocean (sea ice) has profoundly different consequences for global sea level and climate.This Activity introduces students to several different kinds of ice (including glaciers and icebergs) and invites them to simulate and measure the different effects of melting ice on the ocean and on land. Sea ice is simply frozen ocean water. If you have students all day, the activity can start at the beginning of the day and be revisited at regular intervals throughout the day. The materials list above is for one group or one whole-class demonstration. Irina V. Gorodetskaya*1,2Mark … This results in food coloring pooling on top or run down the side of the ice. This represents floating (sea) ice. A simple science fair project to investigate the effect of sea ice (ice in the ocean) versus terrestrial ice (ice on land).  Ice shelves act as a reinforcement, preventing glacial ice from reaching the ocean. Pour cold water into the sea-ice container until the ice floats. The water shouldn’t be higher than the land level. This represents land ice. This is … This sea ice often breaks into ice floes when a solid sheet of ice shifts and thaws in the spring. In fact, this is one method of desalination or removing salt from water. Sea Ice refers to frozen ocean water which is seen in remote polar oceans. As temperatures rise, glaciers melt faster than they accumulate new snow. Although the sea ice comes from seawater, it is fresh water, too. Fresh water is less dense than salt water and warm water is less dense than cold water; these differences cause circulation in the ocean which is referred to as thermohaline circulation. , Sea ice forms in the winter months and melts in the summer months, however in certain regions it remains year round. There are more consequences than just sea level rise to due land and sea ice melting. As these ice sheets and glaciers melt, the water eventually runs into the ocean, causing sea level to rise. Modified by Kimberly Hill-Edwards Earth’s average temperature has increased by more than 1 o C (1.8 o F). Glaciers and ice sheets also store about 75% of the world's fresh water (NSIDC, 2013), which makes them vital for human survival. Jordan Hanania, Jason DonevLast updated: September 17, 2016Get Citation. In the other container, place the same number of ice cubes on the bottom of the container, next to the clay. Data from NASA's GRACE and GRACE Follow-On satellites show that the land ice sheets in both Antarctica (upper chart) and Greenland (lower chart) have been losing mass since 2002. Roughly 80% of the sunlight that hits the ice reflects into space. These converging floes makes Arctic ice thicker. An increase in global temperature caused by anthropogenic warming influences the quantity of polar ice. Sea and Land Ice Melt Ice is found all around our planet, from the highest peak in Africa to the icy North and South Poles. (The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, along with smaller mountain glaciers, are considered land ice. Thus, when sea ice, there is no change in sea level rise. Differences in salinity and temperature impact global ocean circulation.  To put that into perspective, a 1-meter level sea rise would displace 100 million people who live along coastal lines. In “Land Ice” beaker, place the same amount of crushed ice on top of the plastic wrap. Ask students which type of ice, if any, contributes more to sea-level rise. Ask students where there is a lot of ice on Earth. In which container did the water level rise more? It forms, grows, and melts in the ocean. This is why our “ocean” rose a total of .4 cm in just 20 minutes. As a class, discuss sea-level rise and climate change. Learning goals: Students understand the difference between sea ice and land ice. This represents sea ice. Most (99.5%) of the permanent ice volume in the world is locked up in ice sheets and glaciers. (May 8, 2016). [Online]. Because of the slow process of heat diffusion in water, the world’s oceans are likely to continue to warm for several centuries in response to increases in greenhouse concentrations that have taken place so far.