Incubation takes 41-49 days, with eggs hatching in January. Ryan, P.G. Ecology This marine species is closely linked with pack ice, occuring mainly in areas with 10-50% ice cover. Two samples of snow petrel Pagodroma nivea mumiyo (solidified stomach oil) from Heimefrontfjella (74°34â²36â³S, 11°13â²24â³W) in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, were radiocarbon dated at 37,400 ± 1,500 and 3,120 ± 70 years old (dates are corrected for the âreservoir effectâ). www.nzbirdsonline.org.nz. It has the most southerly breeding distribution of any bird. Birds likely to be seen in the nearby waters include Wandering, Black-browed, Grey-headed, and Light-mantled Albatrosses as well as an assortment of Petrels, including â¦ Snow petrels may live up to 20 years. British Antarctic Survey Bulletin 27: 131-137. del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A; Sargatal, J. It is the only petrel species with pure white plumage, providing it with good camouflage in Antarctica. Snow petrel. Harrison, P. 1987. In contrast, it has a short, narrow, hooked blue-black bill, dark brown eyes and blue-black feet. White morph southern giant petrels are at least 8 x the size of the largest snow petrels (by weight), with huge pale yellowish-horn bills, and always have a few scattered black feathers. Pronounced differences in size are reported between individuals, with the largest adult birds around one quarter larger than the smallest. They, in turn, are all members of the family Procellariidae, and the order Procellariiformes. Marchant, S.; Higgins, P.J. Breeds on northern tundra, mainly in areas with rocky outcrops, boulder fields, cliffs, or rocky beaches, â¦ There are a variety of colors, including black, gray, beige, white, and any combination of these. Breeding Range Codes: AF: Africa (entire continent rather than south of Sahara) AN: Antarctica : AO: Atlantic Ocean : AU: Australasia (Wallacea (Indonesian islands east of Wallace's line), New Guinea and its islands, Australia, New Zealand and its subantarctic islands, the Solomons, New Caledonia, and Vanuatu) EU Snow Petrels breed amongst others on areas of exposed rock which may be as much as 300 km from the open sea during the breeding â¦ Vol. They produce a stomach oil made up of wax esters and triglycerides that is stored in the proventriculus. GAM results for the breeding success if six seabird species from the Pointe Géologie archipelago as a function of summer sea ice concentration in the â¦ Occasionally birds flock in open water where icebergs are present, where they are often seen roosting on icebergs. Its life-cycle is closely linked to pack ice: drifting sea ice that becomes packed together in large masses. The average maximum temperatures, however, are above freezing in December and January and are almost 30°F. Weight: 240 to 460g, it is a characteristic of snow petrels that there can be a large range of sizes amongst individuals. Snow Petrel (Pagodroma nivea) Very few data on breeding sites of Snow Petrels in Antarctica are available from literature. Snow petrels fly low when over water using more rapid wing-beats and less gliding than other petrels; juveniles are distinguished by extensive black barring on the upperparts. Obser- Ornithological Society of New Zealand & Te Papa Press, Wellington. The mean laying date for the three years combined was 4.0 + 2.7 December (n 196, range 27 November to 12 December), and the coefficient of In September they arrive in breeding grounds that may be as far as 200 km â¦ They feed primarily on fish and krill in the loose pack ice within reach of their colonies. It is a circumpolar breeder in Antarctica, nesting up to 440 km inland in the Antarctic mountains, and up to 2,400 m above sea level. In summer, tundra. Heather, B.D; Robertson, H.A 1996 (rev. Birds stained with oil from such fighting gather on snow banks near nesting sites to clean their feathers in snow. 1. Procellariiformes. 64-135 in Checklist Committee (OSNZ) 2010. 2010. Climate change may threaten the species in future because Antarctic birds seem to be breeding later in response to a reduction in the extent of sea ice cover, causing decreases in prey species in some areas, or the increasing length of the sea ice season, which delays access to breeding grounds. This is in reference to the petrel's habit of appearing to run on the water to take off. The Snow Petrel breeds exclusively on Antarctica and some neighbouring islands, including South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (del Hoyo et al. Szabo, M.J. 2013. Oxford University Press, Melbourne. Adult in flight. 1992). The former longer-winged subspecies breeds in the Ross Sea region at the Balleny Islands, and Capes Adare and Hallet; the shorter-winged subspecies breeds on the Antarctic Peninsula, continental Antarctica, and glaciated islands in the South Atlantic Ocean. 400 g) of the fulmarine petrel group. 1. 2. Nests are simple pebble-lined scrapes usually in a deep rock crevices with overhanging protection. Snow Petrel facts - Basics. The snow petrel has a circumpolar distribution in Antarctic waters, from the edge of the pack-ice to the continental ice-shelf. The snow petrel is a small fulmarine petrel with pure white plumage, a short narrow hooked blue-black bill, dark eyes and bluish-black feet. The snow petrel, Pagodroma nivea, is a small, pure white fulmarine petrel with black underdown, coal-black eyes, small black bill and bluish gray feet. It is one of only three birds that breed exclusively in Antarctica and has been seen at the geographic South Pole. Birds recorded at South Georgia are always near drifting ice offshoreÂ or at the heads of glaciers. Snow petrels feed mainly on fish, some cephalopods, mollusks, and krill, as well as carrion. 1988). Below: Detailed view of bottom of same cliff showing the nature of the rock which provides numerous nesting cavities for petrels. Albatross Information. Female immigration Snow petrels are not truly colonial because nests are often sparsely scattered among large concentrations in suitable habitat. Scofield, R.P. The snow reference is probably meant for its white color. Incidentally, a skin was procured by Cook, who noted this in his own account. Map of Cape Hallett Region, Antarctica. In 1994 and 1995, two dead birds were recovered on Macquarie Island, which lies 650-700 km south-west of Auckland and Campbell Islands in the New Zealand subantarctic region. station in this flight. Family: Longspurs and Snow Buntings: Habitat: Prairies, fields, dunes, shores. J. R. Forster painted a picture of it, and made measurements, as well, but only the latter were published, posthumously, by M. H. K. Lichtenstein in 1844. Image © Tony Whitehead by Tony Whitehead www.wildlight.co.nz. Contrary to Mathews in Novitates Zoologicae (1934), the two names do not represent alternative, new names for P. nivea, but are subspecies, as well as nomen nudum, on account of their being listed similar to how other subspecies Bonaparte listed in the Conspectus. A small seabird with a limited range, breeding only on offshore islands from central California to northern Baja, and dispersing only short distances at sea. Length: 30 - 40 cm, wingspan: 75 - 95 cm Breeding Season: Nests are made and eggs laid from October to November, the chicks fledge and leave the nest 41 - 45 days later, snow petrels â¦ Snow petrels breed in large numbers along the coast of Antarctica, where they forage in close association with the pack ice, feeding mostly on fish (Ainley et al. Snow petrels are confined to Antarctica and neighbouring glaciated islands, including the Balleny Islands and Scott Islands in the Ross Dependency, and South Georgia, South Orkney and the South Sandwich Islands, and BouvetÃ¸ya Island, in the South Atlantic Ocean. Tennyson, A.J.D. 2. Common and widespread, numbers probably stable. Vol.1, ratites to ducks. Seabirds of the world: a photographic guide. These creatures vary greatly in appearance. This can be sprayed out of their mouths as a defense against predators and as an energy-rich food source for the chicks and for the adults during their long flights. Reader's Digest, Australia. 2004. Nests are pebble-lined scrapes on snow-free rock ledges with overhanging protection or inÂ deep rock crevices. 7 super snow petrel facts. 1). This page was last edited on 6 October 2018, at 19:38. Similar species: the only other all-white bird in Antarctica is the snowy sheathbill (absent from the Ross Sea sector), which is distinguished by its bulkier body, larger head and yellow bill, and land-based life-cycle. They all share certain identifying features. Across all species and during a 32-year period, immigrants made on average 9 to 29% fewer breeding attempts, had 5â31% fewer ï¬edg-lings, had 2 â16% lower breeding success and produced 6 46% fewer recruits. Maximum height of cliff is about 1200 feet. (eds) 1992 Handbook of the birds of the world. The snow petrel was first named Procellaria nivea by Georg Forster, during Captain James Cook's third voyage in 1777. Snow petrels breed on the Antarctic Peninsula and various Antarctic islands which include South Sandwich Islands, Géologie Archipelago, South Georgia Islands, and other islands of the Scotia Arc.  Body length is 36 to 41 cm (14–16 in) and the wingspan is 76 to 79 cm (30–31 in). Range cv (0/0) Results 2.7 (46) 29 Nov- 8 Dec 0.79 Laying in the Snow Petrel began in the last week of November and its timing varied little from year to year (Table J). © 2020 | Updated 25-Jul-2020 with version 10.2 IOC World Bird List v10.2 by Frank Gill, David Donsker & Pamela Rasmussen (Eds) is â¦ Snow petrels are almost entirely restricted to cold Antarctic waters. Some species grow over 3.25 ft. long, anâ¦ It nests where rock is exposed during summer, under overhangs, or in crevices and small caves. Snow petrels feeds mainly on krill, squid and fish, and scavenge carrion such as bird, seal and whale carcasses. 1985. It excretes a high saline solution from their nostrils. Nivea is derived from Latin adjective niveus, -a, -um meaning "snowy". Birds occur mainly in areas of sea with 10-50% ice cover, are rarely recorded at sea north of 55Â°S, and have never been recorded around the New Zealand mainland. They are long-lived birds known to reach 20 years of age. While surface-seizing, birds sometimes peck the sea surface continuously while rotating their bodies with their webbed feet, like a phalarope. Some birds remain at the colony all year, but the main influx at colonies is from the mid-September until early November. Do snow petrels have any natural predators? 1995). Birds perform aerial displays year-round. The word "petrel" is derived from Peter the Apostle and the story of his walking on water. Pp. Fossilised layers of spit, or âmumijoâ, at snow petrel breeding sites, show the birds colonised the southern Prince Charles Mountains in East Antarctica at least 3680 years ago. They are the largest birds from this family. Flocks are characteristically seen sitting on icebergs. At the nest, an occupying bird may squirt foul-smelling orange stomach oils at intruders (other snow petrels, skuas or humans) via the open mouth, and fight off other snow petrels using its bill and wings. Chicks fledge between late February and mid-May, 41-45 days after hatching. A first analysis of the main 27-year (1963 to 1990) data set from Adélie Land indicated that breeding success was mostly â¦ Most of breeding range is remote from effects of human activity. They have harsh gutteral calls, including a high pitched kir-kir-kir, and make plaintive calls during mating. Along with South Polar skua, the snow petrel has the southernmost breeding range of any bird species, and is one of only three species recorded at the South Pole. New Zealand Birds Online. Some birds stay at colonies year-round, with the main influx mid-September to early November. 3. (1988)is[800 km away, â¦ They are resident in â¦ Some species are solid and uniform in color, while others have mottled plumage, or feathers. In Antarctica, the snow petrel is a specialist forager and only occurs where there is some degree of seaâice cover, generally along the edge of the pack ice (Ainley & Jacobs 1981; Ainley, OâConnor & Boekelheide 1984; Veit & Hunt 1991). Antarctic and Arctic terns in Antarctic seas are distinguished by black caps and red bills. (ed.) The breeding season in New Zealand runs from August to February. Breeding. Bonaparte also created the generic name Pagodroma, in the Paris academic journal Compte Rendus (1856). Feeding birds sometimes accompany minke whales and Antarctic petrels. Notornis 51: 168-169. The snow petrel is the only member of the genus Pagodroma, and a member of the subfamily fulmarine petrels. Fledglings from the same colony may remain â¦ The issue of taxonomy and nomenclature for this species is complex, and represents an example of many of the unusual problems which arise from the varied use of the terminology. Only very rarely are they observed north of the pack ice. Snow petrel breeding performance data Data on the breeding performance of snow petrels were extracted from a database of observations of snow petrel activity of one colony located on Reeve Hill in the vicinity of Casey Station, Antarctica (66 17¢S, 110 32¢E) for 15 seasons between 1984 and 2003 (Fig. Snow petrel. Nov., 1962 BREEDING OF SNOW PETREL 489 0' I GMC Fig. Flocks are characteristically seen sitting on icebergs. 2011). The snow petrel is more of a crevice nester than the three larger ledge-nesting species. Nests are often associated with those of other fulmarine petrels (Antarctic fulmar, Antarctic petrel, Cape petrel), which compete for the same limited ice-free space. Charles Lucien Bonaparte, in his Conspectus Generum Avium, volume II (1857), designated two subspecific binomial terms with no further descriptions to them: Pagodroma major and Pagodroma minor. The Snow Petrel ranges N at sea outside the breeding season. During the winter, they disperse to the pack ice, ice floes, and the open sea. Snow petrels (Pagodroma nivea) are the most ice-dependent flying seabirds, always foraging for krill and fish in summer and a wider spectrum of prey in winter in close association with ice. However, for the period 1982â2013, only Adélie penguin and snow petrel breeding success was negatively related to sea ice concentration in summer (table 1 and figure 3). Notornis 39: 119-124. Along with South Polar skua, the snow petrel has the southernmost breeding range of any bird species, and is one of only three species recorded at the South Pole. Snow petrel (Pagodroma nivea) records from Macquarie Island. They differ in size, and the greater form has a stouter, larger beak. During the austral winter they disperse to pack ice, ice floes and open seas, when seas nearest breeding sites are frozen. A single white egg (56 x 40 mm) is laid between late November and mid-December. Some birds remain at the colony all year, while others range north at sea and return at the colonies from mid-September until early â¦ First, they have nasal passages that attach to the upper bill called naricorns. Crystal Sound, Antarctic Peninsula, February 2015. Also, Pagodroma can be broken down as, pagos is Greek for "ice" and dromos for "a running course".